NeuroAffective Relational Model (NARM)
NARM is a model of psychotherapy used in the healing of complex and developmental trauma, integrating both top-down and bottom-up approaches to treat.
How NARM conceptualizes Complex Trauma:
Complex Trauma results from chronic, long-term exposure to relational and emotional trauma in which an individual has little or no control (agency) and from which there is little or no hope of escape (helplessness).
Learn more about NARM here.